Tipos de rocas cubanas
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Ideas esenciales

Las rocas de Cuba son de naturaleza variada, tanto por su composición como por su edad. Las hay intrusivas de origen profundo. Otras rocas ígneas son lavas que se formaron en antiguos lechos marinos e islas volcánicas. Entre las rocas sedimentarias hay variedades depositadas a grandes profundidades en antiguos océanos, otras se acumularon en mares poco profundos y algunas en condiciones terrestres. Entre las rocas metamórficas hay variedades formadas en condiciones de alta presión o de alta temperatura.

granito

El granito

Rocas ígneas

Las rocas ígneas se forman a partir de una masa fundida, conocida como magma, la cual se enfrió y cristalizó a cierta profundidad para formar una roca intrusiva compuesta de agregado de minerales del grupo de los silicatos. Las erupciones de lava fundida que salen de los volcanes y se depositan sobre la superficie de la Tierra, dan origen a las rocas extrusivas.

El granito, la más común de todas las rocas ígneas intrusivas, está formado por feldespato, cuarzo y mica.s

caliza

Roca caliza

Las rocas sediimentarias

Son rocas de origen exógeno formadas por la erosión de las preexistentes. Los productos detríticos resultantes son transportados en suspensión, y partes disueltos por las aguas, y finalmente depositados en las cuencas de sedimentación en forma de capas o estratos. Además, se forman por la compactación de los sedimentos efusivos.

Se puede observar claramente en la figura los estratos de roca caliza. geno form

metamrfica

Las rocas metamórficas que se observan son: micasquisto, cuarcita y mármol.

Las rocas Metamórficas

Son aquellas rocas cuyos minerales han sufrido ajustes estructurales y mineralógicos en presencia de ciertas condiciones físicas o químicas, o combinaciones de ellas, impuestas por la profundidad , la presión, la energía térmica o el calor, y los fluidos químicamente activos, pueden haber intervenido en el cambio de una roca originalmente ígnea o sedimentaria en metamórfica.

En el mapa de Cuba aparece una ubicación generalizada de las rocas cubanas.

mapa_roca_gnea

Confeccionado por M. Iturralde Vinent Adecuado por AGG

geologa_1
Tipos de rocas en Cuba (las destacadas son las más abundantes)
Ígneas Granitos, granodioritas, dioritas cuarcíferas, pórfidos, pegmatita riolitariodacitas, obsidiana, pumitas, dioritas, andesitas, diacitas, gabros basáltos y diabasas, porfiritas basálticas, periotitas y piroxenitas.
Sedimentarias Brechas, conglomerados, areniscas, limonitas, lutitas calizas, dolomitas, pedemal o silicita, evaporitas, turbas, asfaltitas, lateritas, tobas, tufitas.
Metamórficas Cuarcitas, mármoles, anfibolitas, serpentinitas, corneanas, pizarras, esquistos, gneis o neises.

Actividades de continuidad

geologa

Actividad práctica en el terreno

Tareas de aprendizaje

1- ¿Cuál es la diferencia entre una roca ígnea intrusiva y una efusiva?

2- ¿De dónde proceden los sedimentos que originan las rocas sedimentarias?

3. Analiza, a partir de lo tratado en este epígrafe, qué tipos de rocas son las mas abundantes en Cuba.

TareBibliografía consultada

Colectivo de autores, “Libro de texto 7mo grado”, 2009

Colectivo de autores, “Programa 7mo grado”, 2009

Paul Silverman/Fund. Photos/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Segura Soto, Rafael. Introducción a la petrografía. Editorial Pueblo y Educación. Ciudad de La Habana. 1973.

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gabriela 13 de febrero de 2018, 8:35 / Responder
me gusta la ciencias naturales que se imparte en mi aula

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